This review provides an overview of pore characterization and pore scale modeling techniques as applied in the earth sciences, and is intended to spark a cross-disciplinary discussion with fine particle and powder scientists and engineers in IFPRI. We think many of the problems faced in these disciplines are similar, and believe some of the new methods which have surfaced over the last few years in our quickly evolving field may prove useful for IFPRI members. At the same time, we also hope to learn from you, and we welcome you to contact us with comments, questions or ideas. Many of the techniques discussed in this review are rooted in the study of transport and degradation processes which occur in natural rock, topics with a wide variety of real-life consequences both in underground geological reservoirs and above ground (e.g. oil and gas production, environmental remediation of aquifers, building stone deterioration, carbon capture and storage). Throughout this work, we will also highlight some of the remaining challenges we face, together with possible solutions we see emerging.